Moderator:  Rafael G. Souza1

1Departamento de Geologia e Paleontologia, Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

The Biological Systematics is one of the major areas within Biology and has in Systematic Phylogenetics, also known as Cladistics, the most prominent research area within the last years. However, among the researchers interested in Biological Systematics we can detect at least two schools of reasoning, which are: 1) the “tree-thinking” that includes the cladistics and its variants such as phylogenomics; and, 2) the traditional systematic phylogenetics recognized by Hennig and more recently developed by Fitzhugh. Those two ways are really different regarding their foundations being the first extensively based on Farris propositions and in the Popperian way of science, while the second claims for a more explanatory science as defended by Hume and Peirce. Thus there are recognizable differences in the way of the data is treated, the methods of inference, test and the final aims of each school. The idea of this workshop is to open a space of discussion were works from those schools are presented and discussions regarding the different perspectives are conducted. In this way, a common ground of discussion is created and some advances in the foundations of Biological Systematics can be carried on.